Sensory integration:  

  • Balance Balance is a motor skill. At the beginning of life, motor activity develops before mental actions, then both work together and coexist and finally mental actions subordinates motor activity. The premise here is that proper development of motor skills is critical for learning - the motor experiences are the foundation of mental development. When motor skills are not fully developed, cognitive learning can be affected.

  • Crossing the Midline/Mentally Crossing the Midline - When an individual is able to cross the midline (laterally reach across or move across the middle of the body) it means that his/her brain has learned to plan and carry out a sequences of movements in proper order. When internalized it leads to the ability to know your right from your left. We use ourselves as a difficulty in understanding the orientation of an external object or a word or letter and this may cause word or letter reversals.

  • Body in Space - An individual should know where his or her body is in space with or without benefit of the visual system. Knowing this contributes to the knowledge and development of the left/right, directions, spatial relations and visualizations etc.

Focusing skills:  

  • TeamingThis is the natural teamwork of the eyes, when both are being used at the same time to see the same thing. But under certain conditions, one is not teaming with the other because it is shut off or suppressed.

  • Aiming at the Target - This is a coordinated movement and alignment of both eyes inward when a object is held close, such as looking at a book; and a coordinated movement and alignment of both eyes outward when looking from a near object to a distant object, such as looking from a book to the blackboard. Poor convergence skills can cause severe eye strain when a person reads. Seeing double and/or suppression of an eye is also possible. It may also cause the person to lose his place while he/she reads.

  • Shifting Between Seat Work and Board Work - This is a focusing ability. Students with poor focusing skills will have print blur when they read or may have momentary blur when looking from the blackboard to the paper. A deficiency in this area may cause eye strain and fatigue. It is usually corrected with vision training and/or reading glasses.

  • Moving Across the Page - Ocular pursuits are eye movements used when following a moving object. If an object is moving and a person is moving, many different areas of the brain must coordinate efficiently in order to follow the object accurately. Poor "pursuit function" are often associated with poor reading cognition and short attention span. Jerky eye movements when following an object, excessive head movements, overshooting the target, fatigue and clumsiness are early symptoms, even when the sight is 20/20.

  • Targeting an Object- This is how well the eyes move quickly and accurately from one point to another. It is a critical function for good reading skills. Most eye movements in reading are this kind of movement, called saccades. A deficiency in this area will cause excessive rereading, especially at the beginning of each line of print.

 

 

IPP - Dictionary

 

Integrated Practice Protocol (IPP System) 

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Barb Drummond

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